The Bloomsbury Group

"They really were the progressives and the embodiment of the avant-garde in early years of this century. Every time we look at them again they seem to have something for the contemporary world, whether in sexual ethics, liberation, biography, economics, feminism or painting."
— Michael Holroyd, in the San Francisco Chronicle, 1995

"It is a very fascinating, queer, self-absorbed, fantastic set of people. But they are very interesting..."
Ray Costelloe, in a letter to Mary Costelloe, 1909

There has been much argument about the boundaries of the Bloomsbury group, even among some of its undisputed members. I have settled upon the following because they are the most often mentioned in diaries, biographies, etc. as actually spending time together. Thus, E.M. Forster, who is often listed as a member, is not on my list.

Photo of Clive BellClive Bell
an art critic
Photo of Vanessa BellVanessa (Stephen) Bell
a painter
Photo of Roger FryRoger Fry
an art critic and painter
Photo of Duncan GrantDuncan Grant
a painter
Photo of John Maynard KeynesJohn Maynard Keynes
an economist
Photo of Desmond MacCarthyDesmond MacCarthy
a journalist and editor
Photo of Thoby StephenThoby Stephen
the Cambridge connection
Photo of Adrian StephenAdrian Stephen
a psychoanalyst
Photo of Lytton StracheyLytton Strachey
a historian
Photo of Saxon Sydney-TurnerSaxon Sydney-Turner
a civil servant
Photo of Leonard WoolfLeonard Woolf
a writer, publisher and civil servant
Photo of Virginia WoolfVirginia (Stephen) Woolf
a writer and publisher

Some excellent sources of information about the Bloomsbury Group are:
Archive Journeys: Bloomsbury at The Tate Online
The Bloomsbury Group ed. S.P. Rosenbaum ©1995, University of Toronto Press.
Duncan Grant by Frances Spalding ©1998, Pimlico. Out of print, but available through Bibliofind or Alibris.
Lytton Strachey: The New Biography by Michael Holroyd ©1995, Farrar Strauss & Giroux.
Moments of Being by Virginia Woolf ©1985, 1976, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Vanessa Bell by Frances Spalding ©1983, Ticknor & Fields. Out of print, but available through Bibliofind or Alibris.
Virginia Woolf: A Biography by Quentin Bell ©1983, Texas Bookman.
Virginia Woolf by Hermione Lee ©1997, Alfred A. Knopf.

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